Popo vanuatu

Popo Vanuatu Background:

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Popo vanuatu

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A majority of the country's population does not have access to a reliable supply of safe drinking water. The nation's logging industry threatens the forests and contributes to the problem of soil erosion.

The reefs on Vanuatu's coasts, which are the home of the country's marine life, are threatened by inappropriate fishing methods and siltation.

According to a report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources IUCN , threatened species included 5 types of mammals, 7 species of birds, 2 types of reptiles, 5 species of fish, and 10 species of plants.

The estuarine crocodile, hawksbill turtle, Fiji banded iguana, and insular flying fox are threatened species. The population of Vanuatu in was estimated by the United Nations UN at ,, which placed it at number in population among the nations of the world.

There were males for every females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for — 10 was expected to be 2.

A high fertility rate, 4. The projected population for the year was , The overall population density was 18 per sq km 46 per sq mi. The population is unevenly distributed, with the vast majority of Vanuatuans living in some 2, small villages.

The capital city, Port-Vila, had a population of 34, in that year. Vanuatu's earliest known settlers probably migrated from the northwestern Pacific about 3, years ago.

They were followed a thousand years later by migrants from the Solomon Islands. Tradition describes a series of subsequent incursions.

In the 19th century, thousands of New Hebrides islanders were recruited as indentured laborers for plantation work in Australia , Fiji, New Caledonia, and Samoa.

This migration gradually died down after the establishment of the Anglo-French Condominium, although voluntary emigration to New Caledonia continued until independence.

In recent years, adverse economic conditions have encouraged emigration to Fiji, New Zealand , and the United States. The net migration rate in was estimated as zero migrants per 1, population.

The government views the migration levels as satisfactory. More than languages and dialects are spoken in Vanuatu. Melanesian, the principal language, is related to Fijian and New Caledonian speech.

Pidgin English, known as Bislama or Bichelama, is recognized by the constitution as the lingua franca , although English and French are also official languages.

The national anthem is in Bislama, which is also used in parliamentary debate, with the proceedings reported in English and French as well. Children often speak as many as four languages and every aspect of public life — including education, law, and the media — is complicated by language problems.

A majority of the population is considered to be Christian, though many include indigenous customs with their practice.

The Anglican, Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic churches first began missionary work in the New Hebrides during the 19th century. More recently, the Seventh-Day Adventists and other nontraditional Protestant groups have been active in mission work.

While most of the mission schools have been handed over to the government, missionaries have continued to make important contributions to education and health.

Muslims are also active within the country. There are small groups of Jehovah 's Witnesses and Mormons. Since , the John Frum Movement political party and indigenous religion based on a rejection of the white Christian's beliefs but not his goods has flourished, mainly on Tanna and provides a remarkable example of religious development in a situation of cultural challenge and transition.

The constitution allows for religious freedom while making a commitment to traditional values of Christian principles.

Some subsidies are offered to Christian churches and the government maintains good relations with the Vanuatu Christian Council through the Ministry of Home Affairs.

In , there were 1, km mi of roads, of which km mi were paved. In , there were 8, passenger cars and 4, commercial vehicles registered for use. There were 30 small usable airfields serving all the main islands in , of which 3 had paved runways as of Air Vanuatu, the national airline operated by Ansett Airlines of Australia, maintains regular service to Australia; an internal airline, Air Melanesiae, links 22 airfields on various islands.

Port-Vila and Luganville are the chief seaports. In the latest year for which data was available , 97, passengers were carried on scheduled domestic and international flights.

Small ships provide frequent interisland service. Vanuatu maintains a policy of open registry for merchant ships, allowing foreign ship-owners to avoid the higher costs and regulations of registration under their own flags.

Although the Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queir established a short-lived settlement on Espiritu Santo in , little more is known about the history of the New Hebrides until French and British explorers arrived in the late 18th century.

Captain James Cook discovered, named, and charted most of the southern islands in The next century brought British and French missionaries, planters, and traders, and for many years the islanders suffered from the depredations of the recruiting ships and from other lawless acts by Europeans in the region.

By the Anglo-French Convention of , a joint naval commission was established, with a resident commissioner to protect the lives and interests of the islanders.

In following a London conference, the Anglo-French Condominium was established, largely to settle land claims and to end difficulties caused by lack of clear local jurisdiction.

Indigenous political activity developed after World War II , with increasing native concern over land alienation and European dominance.

In a representative assembly replaced the nominated advisory council under which the New Hebrides had been governed; 29 assembly members were elected by universal suffrage, nine members represented economic interests, and four members represented the traditional chiefs.

In the National Party Vanuaaku Pati , which held 21 of 42 assembly seats, demanded independence and staged a boycott of the legislature; in response, at a conference in Paris , self-government was agreed on for , to be followed by a referendum on independence.

After considerable difficulty, a constitutional conference in finally agreed on an independence constitution. In the November elections for a newly constituted, fully elective assembly, the National Party , led by Father Walter Lini, obtained 26 of the 39 seats.

In May however, a dissident francophone group, based on Espiritu Santo, attempted to break away and declared an independent government of Vemarana, under Jimmy Stevens and the Nagriamal Party.

Attempts made during June to resolve the differences between the new central government and the rebels failed, and UK and French troops were sent to Luganville on 24 July.

No shots were fired, but the soldiers remained until Vanuatu's formal declaration of independence on 30 July They were then replaced at the new government's request by forces from Papua New Guinea , who were assisted by the local police in putting down the rebellion.

Since independence, Vanuatu Our Land Forever has followed a nonaligned foreign policy. It became the first South Pacific nation to join the nonaligned movement, and in January it signed a controversial fishing agreement with the USSR.

In May Vanuatu announced a ban on all military ships and aircraft in a dispute over a proposed Libyan diplomatic mission.

The dispute ended with the expulsion of two Libyan diplomats. Relations with the French government remained strained throughout much of the Lini government's rule, though they improved at the end of with the signing of the Matignon Accord relating to New Caledonia.

In December President George Ati Sokomanu attempted to dismiss the Lini government by ordering the dissolution of the country's parliament.

Sokomanu appointed Barak Sope as prime minister. Lini refused to surrender office and reconvened parliament.

Sope and several supporters were arrested and charged with inciting mutiny. Sope was sentenced to six years' imprisonment. Lini lost a parliamentary vote of confidence in September and he was replaced by Donald Kalpokas.

Strains between the coalition members led to Lini joining the opposition in August , but Carlot Korman's government survived the defection.

Rialuth Serge Vohor was prime minister from November until a no-confidence vote in parliament forced his resignation on 7 February Maxime Carlot Korman was elected prime minister, forming a coalition, and parliament appointed Kalpokas deputy prime minister.

The coalition was considered to be weak, however. On 30 September Korman was ousted by a no-confidence motion. Vohor was reelected as prime minister.

Leye, in the face of dissent and political crises, took action to dissolve parliament. The ruling coalition refused to step down, questioning the constitutional right of Leye to do this.

The Court of Appeal ruled in January that Leye's actions were legal, thus opening the way for a new general election.

In the election held 6 March the VP of Kalpokas improved its earlier performance, but could not claim a majority. Kalpokas rejoined forces with Fr.

Lini and the NUP and coalesced with minority party legislators to gain a clear majority. Kalpokas was elected prime minister.

Willie Jimmy was named deputy prime minister on 19 October In , the government introduced a Comprehensive Reform Program, to combat corruption and abuse of power by government officials.

It included a revamping of state administration, an increase in private sector development, a reduction in the public service sector, and the enactment of a leadership code of conduct.

The South Pacific Forum set up the Pacific Kava Council to work at protecting the regional rights to kava and its uses.

The kava plant's reputed relaxation properties had attracted the attention of producers of herbal medicines.

The establishment of kava plantations in Central America threatened the Pacific Islands' production. Vanuatu joined with other small island developing states SIDS through the United Nations SIDSnet, an Internet project linking over 40 island nations worldwide to address issues like the economic hurdles of isolation and small markets.

Vanuatu was mentioned as already affected by inundation of low-lying areas and coastal regions by rising oceans.

In April , Barak Sope was ousted as prime minister in a vote of no confidence, and Edward Natapei became prime minister.

The new government undertook investigations into Sope's business dealings, and in November, Sope was charged with two counts of forgery.

He was sentenced to three years' imprisonment but was subsequently pardoned by President Fr. John Bani. Natapei was reelected prime minister in May , after parliamentary elections held on 30 April, in which his Vanua'aku Party took 15 seats and the Union of Moderate Parties took 14 seats.

Presidential and legislative elections were held in The controversial prime minister Serge Vohor, who took office in July , was ousted following a no-confidence vote that December; Vohor had attempted to switch Vanuatu's diplomatic recognition of China to Taiwan.

Ham Lini became prime minister in December In April and May , Alfred Masing Nalo was elected president, but was later removed from office after the Supreme Court invalidated the result of the election.

Kalkot Matas Kelekele was elected president in August The next presidential election was to be held in , and the next prime minister election was scheduled to take place after the general elections in Under the independence constitution adopted in and effective in , Vanuatu is an independent republic within the Commonwealth of Nations.

The head of state is the president Kalkot Matas Kelekele since August ; the head of government is the prime minister Ham Lini since December The unicameral legislature consists of 52 members 39 before , and 50 before elected by universal adult suffrage to four-year terms.

The cabinet is responsible to parliament, and the president is chosen by an electoral college for a five-year term. The electoral system includes a degree of proportional representation.

A Council of Chiefs chosen by their peers in the chiefs' district councils advises the government on the protection of Vanuatuan languages and culture.

The next parliamentary elections were to be held in There are municipal councils in Port-Vila and Luganville, and community councils elsewhere.

Espiritu Santo and Tanna have special regional councils. Despite the great difficulty in unifying laws based on the very different English and French traditions, Vanuatu has sought to establish a single system based on British criminal procedure and the French penal code.

The constitution establishes a Supreme Court, with a chief justice and three other judges, as well as an appeals court.

Village and island courts have jurisdiction over customary and other matters. The judiciary is independent of the executive and free from military influence.

The constitution guarantees a range of procedural due process protections including the presumption of innocence, fair public trial, habeas corpus , and the prohibition against double jeopardy.

The nation maintains close links with Papua New Guinea , where Vanuatuan cadets train for a mobile defense force under the auspices of the Australian Ministry of Defense, which also helps to train skilled manpower for national development tasks.

The country holds observer status in the WTO. Vanuatu has taken an active role in Pacific affairs, campaigning for a nuclear-free zone and advocating independence for New Caledonia.

The country is part of the Nonaligned Movement. Vanuatu has a mixed traditional and modern economy. Tourism has been developed since the s and, together with financial services, has become an important foreign exchange earner.

During this period the islands had to deal with the extensive damage from two severe earthquakes, each followed by sizeable tsunamis: in November, on the northern island of Pentecote, and in January , centered on the capital and surrounding areas.

The absence of personal and corporate income taxes has made Vanuatu an offshore financial center, and the government also earns fees from a "flag of convenience" shipping registry.

The GDP growth rate was 2. The inflation rate has fluctuated slightly, but at 1. Strong economic development is hindered by the geographic isolation of the country, its vulnerability to natural disasters, and its dependency on relatively few export commodities.

The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity PPP rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars.

The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 1. The average inflation rate in was 3. As of , there were approximately 25, persons participating in the formal economy as wage earners.

There was no unemployment data available. The wage-labor force is concentrated in Port-Vila and Luganville. For persons engaged in government enterprises, port work, construction, and certain other jobs, the terms of employment and wages are set by legislation.

The nation's first trade unions were formed in Union membership has fallen from 4, in to less than 1, in The law prohibits children under 12 from working.

Children between 12 and 18 may work under restricted hours and conditions. The Labor Department effectively enforces these laws.

This does not provide an adequate living and most families subsidize this amount with subsistence farming. The law mandates a hour maximum workweek.

The Employment Act provides health and safety standards but these are not effectively enforced. While most crops, including yams, taro, manioc, sweet potato , and breadfruit, are raised for local consumption, cash crops like copra, cocoa, and coffee have been increasingly important.

Production of coconuts totaled , tons in In , Vanuatu's first agricultural census was taken, with British assistance. A land alienation act passed in limits land ownership to indigenous owners and their descendants, but expatriates can lease land for up to 75 years.

Hogs and fowl form part of the village economy. Vanuatu is ideal for cattle, and large numbers are raised on plantations; in there were an estimated , head of cattle, up from around , in The growing meat-packing industry produces frozen, chilled, and tinned beef; production of beef totaled about 3, tons dressed carcass weight in The beef industry is centered on the island of Espiritu Santo, where the country's main abattoir is located.

Beef is exported primarily to Japan, with a lesser amount going to New Caledonia. Although the South Pacific Fishing Co. Fishing is focused on domestic consumption; exporting fish requires a government permit.

Total roundwood production in was , cu m 4. The government approved the establishment of a large commercial forestry plantation on Espirito Santo in Vanuatu had few known minerals, although gold deposits have been discovered.

Temporary generators established throughout the islands by the United States during World War II — 45 have mostly deteriorated.

Total installed capacity was about 12, kW in , all of it conventional thermal. Electricity production in totaled 42 million kWh, all of it from fossil fuels.

Consumption of electricity that year was 39 million kWh. All hydrocarbon needs were met by imports. In , imports and demand for refined petroleum products each averaged barrels per day.

There were no imports or consumption of natural gas or coal in The industrial sector is small: in it contributed about The leading industries are fish and food freezing, wood processing, and meat canning.

The small manufacturing sector, accounting for 5. Indigenous crafts include basketry, canoe building, and pottery. In , the main contributor to the GDP was the transport and communications sector Manufacturing and construction had the smallest share in the economy, with 3.

A large part of the population still relies on barter. In Port-Vila, European businesses dominate commercial life; there are hotels, supermarkets, fashion shops, and patisseries, as well as Australian steak houses and small Chinese restaurants.

Some Vanuatuans have entered the cash economy in urban areas. There is a very small light industry section that supplies the local markets.

The nation's numerous cooperative societies handle most of the distribution of goods on the islands. A value-added tax applies to most goods and services.

Normal business hours in the capital are to am and to pm, Monday through Friday. Banks in Vanuatu are open on weekdays from 8 to am and to 3 pm.

Service receipts have helped offset the traditionally adverse trade balances. A commodities marketing board exports copra and cocoa, and cooperatives play a major role in foreign trade.

Continuing trade deficits have been offset by aid from the United Kingdom and France, but this assistance is being steadily reduced.

Vanuatu's banking system includes a Central Bank, local retail banks, and a Development Bank that provides loans for agricultural projects, housing, and industrial development.

The country's Financial Centre, a tax haven created by the British in , is the third-largest source of government revenue.

Favorable regulatory and tax structures have stimulated foreign interest in Vanuatu as an international financial center; more than offshore companies and banks were registered in Port-Vila in Vanuatu has no double taxation agreements with other countries, ensuring maximum confidentiality for international financial transactions.

In late , a number of foreign bank-including Deutsche Bank, Banker's Trust, and the Bank of New York -banned trading in us with Vanuatu because of suspected illegal activity being carried on through the Vanuatu financial center.

The money market rate, the rate at which financial institutions lend to one another in the short term, was 5. The discount rate, the interest rate at which the central bank lends to financial institutions in the short term, was 6.

There is no stock exchange. The International Monetary Fund IMF reported that in , the most recent year for which it had data, central government revenues were vt6, million and expenditures were vt7, million.

Government outlays by function were as follows: general public services, Vanuatu has no income, corporation, or sales tax.

In , it was one of seven that remained on the list. In May , however, Vanuatu was removed from the blacklist, having promised an OECD representative to make the required reforms.

Vanuatu imposes tariffs on both an ad valorem and specific basis. Printed matter is exempt. Export duties are levied on the country's primary products.

The government encourages all forms of foreign investment, especially if there is joint local participation.

There are no major foreign ownership restrictions, and duty exemptions are available on application to the Ministry of Finance. This action was taken because of the high number of project proposals approved that have not been implemented.

Projects under the five-year development plan for — 86 included harbor development, agricultural training, and road improvements.

Government development projects emphasize local participation and preservation of Vanuatu's cultural heritage.

In , it was one of only seven jurisdictions still on the list of not having take corrective action.

In May , however, Vanuatu was the first of the seven to be removed from the blacklist having agreed, after discussions with OECD representatives, to institute the necessary reforms.

Vanuatu remains one of the top 10 "flags of convenience" registries. The economy of Vanuatu recovered in and , and the trend is expected to continue in coming years, although not at exceptional rates.

The economic growth will primarily be driven by the beef industry, and by a rising output in the forestry industry. The tourism industry is also expected to bring increasing foreign exchange in the country, although the country's main airline might be facing problems in the future due to increasing oil prices.

The majority of the people cling to traditional village life. The extended family system ensures that no islanders starve, while church missions and the social development section of the Education Ministry concentrate on rural development and youth activities.

The government incorporates family planning into its overall maternal and child health program. A provident fund system provides lump-sum benefits for old age, disability, and death.

Pensions are provided at the age of Women are still largely confined to traditional cultural roles, and most marriages include a "bride-price" that encourages men to consider their wives as possessions.

Women generally do not own land. Village chiefs usually act to reinforce the subordinate roles of women and are thus viewed as a primary obstacle to female advancement.

There are no female leaders in Vanuatu's civic, business, or religious institutions. A disproportionate number of women lost their jobs due to cutbacks in government employment.

Violence against women, especially domestic abuse, is common. Most cases of violence against women go unreported because women are afraid of further abuse and do not understand their rights.

As of , there were no governmental agencies to support victims of domestic violence. Malaria is the most serious of the country's diseases, which also include leprosy, tuberculosis, filariasis, and venereal diseases.

Medical care is provided by 94 hospitals, health centers, and clinics administered by the Ministry of Health, assisted by the World Health Organization and a number of voluntary agencies.

Local training schemes in basic community nursing are provided by Port-Vila hospitals and local clinics train health and sanitation orderlies.

In , there were an estimated 11 physicians and nurses per , people. In , the infant mortality rate was estimated at In the same year the estimated birth rate The fertility rate was 3.

Average life expectancy was an estimated In urban areas only the emerging middle class can afford government-built housing. Other migrants to the towns buy plots of land and build cheap shacks of corrugated iron and waste materials, principally near Port-Vila and Luganville.

The vast majority of villagers still build their own homes from local materials. The majority of dwellings are traditional Melanesian houses with earth or coral floors, no glass windows, and palm, bamboo, or cane walls and roofing.

The most widely used exterior construction material was bush. In , there were 89 construction approvals granted for residential housing.

Primary education is available for almost all children except in a few remote tribal areas. Education is provided in either English or French.

It is estimated that about The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about in ; the ratio for secondary school was about In , private schools accounted for about 3.

For postsecondary education, especially medical and technical training, selected students go principally to Fiji, Australia, and New Zealand.

As of , public expenditure on education was estimated at 6. The Port-Vila Public Library, also a part of the Cultural Center, has a fairly well-stocked library of both French and English books and periodicals and houses fine collections of Melanesian art and artifacts, as well as a valuable stamp collection; it is the only public library service in the country.

The secondary schools also have libraries, and there is a small library in the parliament building. There is a private fine arts museum are located in Port-Vila.

An earth satellite tracking station came into service in In , there were 6, mainline phones and 7, mobile phones in use nationwide.

Radio Vanuatu founded broadcasts daily in English, French, and Bislama. As of , there were four radio stations and one television station, all operated by the state.

In there were radios and 10 television sets per 1, population. In , there were 7, Internet subscribers served by Internet hosts.

In , it had a circulation of 1, In , there were also four privately owned weekly papers. The constitution provides for free speech and a free press; however, in practice these provisions are not always honored, threatening opposition groups and media representatives with revocations of licenses and permits.

There are a great number of European organizations, but the cooperative movement has had the greatest local impact. Cooperative units have organized a training center in Port-Vila for such skills as accounting, management, law, and marketing.

Cooperatives receive British aid and government support but remain firmly independent. There is an active Vanuatu Credit Union League offering educational opportunities as well as financial services to members.

There are several active sports associations promoting amateur competition for all ages in a variety of pastimes, including cricket, tennis, tae kwon do, and track and field.

Many sports clubs are affiliated with the national Olympic Committee. The Vanuatu Association of Women Graduates promotes higher education opportunities for women.

The most popular recreations in Vanuatu include marine sightseeing, deep-sea fishing, sailing, and beachcombing for shells.

Citizens from most nations do not require visas. The average length of stay was nine nights. Father Walter Hayde Lini — 99 , ordained as an Anglican priest in , served as prime minister in Vanuatu from to Bolton, Lissant.

Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, Leibo, Steven A. East and Southeast Asia , Harpers Ferry , W.

Lindstrom, Lamont. Knowledge and Power in a South Pacific Society. Washington, D. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

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Vanuatu is located in Oceania , about 2, kilometers 1, miles to the northeast of Australia , to the south of Solomon Islands , and north of New Caledonia.

It consists of a group of more than 80 islands with a land area of 14, square kilometers 5, square miles slightly larger than the state of Connecticut and a coastline of 2, kilometers 1, miles.

The population of Vanuatu was estimated at , in mid, an increase of 3. In , the birth rate was With a projected annual population growth rate of 3.

About 94 percent of the population are Melanesian by origin, made up of about different cultural groups. A further 4 percent is French, and there are small but significant populations of Vietnamese and Chinese.

With a high total fertility rate of 5. This is a result of both the high birth rate and a relatively low life expectancy.

The majority of the population is rural, with only 21 percent of the people living in urban areas. However, the urban growth rate is about 50 percent higher than the total growth rate, and this growth is mainly centered on the 2 largest urban centers, Port Vila and Luganville.

Lying in the Western Pacific Ocean , Vanuatu is made up of a chain of islands with diverse physical characteristics and economic potential.

The islands range from small coral atolls to relatively large islands of volcanic origin. Nearly 80 percent of the population of Vanuatu live in villages, so subsistence production of food, housing, and other items is the mainstay of the household economy.

Most households also participate in some cash production, mainly of agricultural products such as copra dried coconut flesh , cocoa, and coffee.

Recently, new items that have entered the village cash economy, and which are of relatively high value, are kava and squash.

The formal economy of Vanuatu is based mainly on agricultural products and services. Copra and coconut oil are produced on large-scale plantations as well as in the villages.

Coconut plantations often have cattle as well. Other products common to the village economy are also produced in plantations, in particular cocoa and coffee.

Fishing supplies the internal market and is also a source of export income. Vanuatu regularly has a negative balance of trade , and this is balanced by the services sector.

Tourism has been growing steadily in recent years, partly because of heavy promotion in nearby countries such as Australia and New Zealand.

Another significant source of employment and government revenues is the Offshore Financial Centre OFC , which provides a tax haven for offshore banks , trust companies, insurance companies, and shipping companies.

International aid accounts for about 35 percent of GDP and development expenditure since independence in has been mainly financed by aid.

During the colonial period from to , Vanuatu, then known as the New Hebrides , had the distinction of being ruled by 2 colonial powers, Great Britain and France.

This "condominium" arrangement has sometimes been termed "pandemonium" since there were 2 systems of administration, education, and courts.

Furthermore, in addition to the 2 colonial languages of English and French, inhabitants spoke one or more of about indigenous languages.

For most ni-Vanuatu people of Vanuatu the only effective language of communication was, and is, Bislama a kind of Pidgin which has strong elements of English vocabulary and Melanesian grammar.

After obtaining independence from Great Britain and France in , dual systems continued to operate in some contexts, especially education.

Systems of administration, courts, etc. The country adopted a republican system, with a president as head of state elected by an electoral college of parliament and regional council presidents , and a prime minister selected by a parliament of 52 members elected by universal suffrage of all citizens aged 18 and over.

A considerable number of political parties have formed and reformed since independence, but in most cases they are based on the colonial language split, either being Anglophone English-speaking or Francophone French-speaking parties.

The primarily Anglophone Vanua'aku Party, with Father Walter Lini as prime minister , held power from to , when parliament voted him out in a no-confidence motion.

Subsequently, Francophone parties, usually in coalition, have tended to form the governments. In the late s, there was a great deal of political turmoil as governments changed and various political leaders were accused of corruption.

Rahman composed the film's score. The soundtrack album was digitally released by Walt Disney Records on May 13, [16] whereas the CD release was released on May 19, The first trailer was released on December 23, and attached theatrically with Saving Mr.

The site's consensus reads: "Pleasant to a fault, Million Dollar Arm is a middle-of-the-plate pitch that coasts on Jon Hamm's considerable charm without adding any truly original curves to Disney's inspirational sports formula.

Scott Foundas of Variety described the film as a "sharp, slickly produced addition to the Disney sports movie canon [that] works as both a stirring underdog tale and as a revealing look at the expanding global footprint of the American sports-entertainment machine.

Alonso Duralde of The Wrap criticized the film's predictability and excessive sentimentality. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Million Dollar Arm Theatrical release poster. Release date. Running time. Main article: Million Dollar Arm soundtrack. Baseball portal Film portal United States portal.

Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. British Board of Film Classification. May 28, Retrieved May 28, Retrieved May 15, Box Office Mojo.

Retrieved November 28, The Walt Disney Studios. Retrieved June 6, Deadline Hollywood. August 19, Retrieved August 19, Retrieved June 16, The Hollywood Reporter.

May 30, The Times of India. Retrieved August 30, May 13, Retrieved May 13, The Wall Street Journal. Roughly three-fourths of the population lives in rural areas, but since independence the urban centres of Luganville and Port-Vila have drawn a significant number of people attracted by better opportunities.

More than local Melanesian languages and dialects are spoken; Bislama, an English-based Melanesian pidgin , is the national language and, along with English and French, is one of three official languages.

Some seven-tenths of the population is Protestant, Presbyterians constituting the largest denomination. Other religions include Roman Catholicism , traditional beliefs, and cargo cults.

Subsistence agriculture has traditionally been the economic base of Vanuatu, together with an elaborate exchange network within and between islands.

Economic changes occurred with the development of European plantations in the island group after cotton was the initial crop, followed by corn maize , coffee, cocoa beans, and coconuts for copra.

Cattle ranching was instituted later. By the s French planters had reversed the initial British domination of the plantation sector, though they too found it increasingly difficult to compete with ni-Vanuatu producers, who could fall back on subsistence agriculture in times of economic downturn.

French hopes of economic hegemony , based on high world prices for copra and the importation of Vietnamese labour in the s, were dashed by the Great Depression of the s.

By most of the copra in the island group was being produced by the ni-Vanuatu themselves, though it was not until the development of cooperatives in the s that they were finally able to assume control of the trade.

Kava, beef, copra, timber, and cocoa are the most important exports; Australia, New Caledonia, Japan , and New Zealand are the main export destinations.

Imports—mainly of machinery and transport equipment, food and live animals, and mineral fuels—come principally from Australia, Singapore , New Zealand, and Fiji.

Because of its vulnerability to weather and commodity market fluctuations, Vanuatu is working toward supplementing large-scale agriculture with stronger extractive, manufacturing, and service sectors to foster its long-term economic growth.

The growing lucre generated by tourism has attracted the attention of foreign companies seeking to develop land into resorts and other attractions. Although, according to the constitution, all land in Vanuatu is under ni-Vanuatu customary collective ownership and cannot be sold to foreigners, increasing interest from abroad in the late 20th and early 21st centuries prompted the government to allow land to be leased for year periods.

Such leases were often negotiated to the disadvantage of ni-Vanuatu, however; many included, for example, a provision that, at the end of the 75 years, the customary owners could regain their lands only by paying in full the cost of any development.

In the early 21st century there was concern that such provisions would mean the permanent alienation of customarily owned lands.

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Much of the group is covered by dense rain forest , but drier regions have patches of savanna grassland. Abundant bird and insect life contrasts with the sparse fauna.

Of the approximately 10 types of bats found in Vanuatu, three are found only there. The indigenous population, called ni-Vanuatu, is overwhelmingly Melanesian, though some of the outlying islands have Polynesian populations.

There are also small minorities of Europeans, Micronesians, Chinese, and Vietnamese. Roughly three-fourths of the population lives in rural areas, but since independence the urban centres of Luganville and Port-Vila have drawn a significant number of people attracted by better opportunities.

More than local Melanesian languages and dialects are spoken; Bislama, an English-based Melanesian pidgin , is the national language and, along with English and French, is one of three official languages.

Some seven-tenths of the population is Protestant, Presbyterians constituting the largest denomination.

Other religions include Roman Catholicism , traditional beliefs, and cargo cults. Subsistence agriculture has traditionally been the economic base of Vanuatu, together with an elaborate exchange network within and between islands.

Economic changes occurred with the development of European plantations in the island group after cotton was the initial crop, followed by corn maize , coffee, cocoa beans, and coconuts for copra.

Cattle ranching was instituted later. By the s French planters had reversed the initial British domination of the plantation sector, though they too found it increasingly difficult to compete with ni-Vanuatu producers, who could fall back on subsistence agriculture in times of economic downturn.

French hopes of economic hegemony , based on high world prices for copra and the importation of Vietnamese labour in the s, were dashed by the Great Depression of the s.

By most of the copra in the island group was being produced by the ni-Vanuatu themselves, though it was not until the development of cooperatives in the s that they were finally able to assume control of the trade.

Kava, beef, copra, timber, and cocoa are the most important exports; Australia, New Caledonia, Japan , and New Zealand are the main export destinations.

Imports—mainly of machinery and transport equipment, food and live animals, and mineral fuels—come principally from Australia, Singapore , New Zealand, and Fiji.

Because of its vulnerability to weather and commodity market fluctuations, Vanuatu is working toward supplementing large-scale agriculture with stronger extractive, manufacturing, and service sectors to foster its long-term economic growth.

The growing lucre generated by tourism has attracted the attention of foreign companies seeking to develop land into resorts and other attractions.

Although, according to the constitution, all land in Vanuatu is under ni-Vanuatu customary collective ownership and cannot be sold to foreigners, increasing interest from abroad in the late 20th and early 21st centuries prompted the government to allow land to be leased for year periods.

Such leases were often negotiated to the disadvantage of ni-Vanuatu, however; many included, for example, a provision that, at the end of the 75 years, the customary owners could regain their lands only by paying in full the cost of any development.

In the early 21st century there was concern that such provisions would mean the permanent alienation of customarily owned lands.

Much of the country is forested including areas of sandalwood and other valuable tropical species. Because the majority of trees felled during the s were exported as unsawn logs, in the early s the government banned exports of roundwood and limited the annual harvest.

Earnings from processed wood mostly sawn on small portable mills grew as a result, and wood products accounted for a small but significant proportion of exports in the early 21st century.

The sale of commercial fishing rights is another important source of foreign revenue, and there is extensive small-scale fishing for local consumption.

Consultado el 12 de junio de British Monarchy Media Centre. Archivado desde el original el 30 de junio de Vanuatu Tourism Office.

Archivado desde el original el 20 de mayo de Caracol Radio. Consultado el 14 de octubre de Puedes visitarla y contribuir. Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial.

Wikimedia Commons Wikinoticias Wikiviajes. Tallis Obed Moses Bob Loughman. Parlamento de Vanuatu.

Del Reino Unido y Francia 30 de julio de Puesto Monte Tabwemasana.

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